Q. Re: Jeremiah 31:31-34. Is there a difference between the New Covenant for the Church and the New Covenant for Israel?
A. Jeremiah 31:31-34 explains that God will make a New Covenant with Israel when they return to Him. It will be similar to the New Covenant the Church enjoys with a few notable exceptions. They will still have a Temple with a priesthood but Jesus will be their High Priest as He is ours. They will be required to conduct daily sacrifices for sins and other periodic offerings, and will still observe three of the current seven Levitical feasts. Passover and Unleavened Bread will be combined and observed in the spring and Tabernacles will occur in the fall. These things are all specified in Ezekiel 45:13- 46:15.
The New Covenant for Israel will be much better than the Old, but there’s no indication in the Bible that any other group of people will ever have the type of unconditional relationship with God that we in the Church enjoy. For example, Zechariah 14:16 says that during the Millennium every nation on Earth will be required to celebrate Tabernacles in Jerusalem every year or face a judgment of drought. The Age of Grace began at the birth of the Church and will end forever with the Rapture.