In Matthew 26:29, Jesus said “But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s Kingdom.” Can you explain “this cup” and when and where will he drink it new? What or where is His Father’s Kingdom? When or what is the Kingdom of God?
To make it simpler, I’ll answer the questions in reverse order.
The Kingdom of God comes in two phases. Phase one is here on Earth now. It’s made up of all those who believe that Jesus is our Lord and Savior. Phase two will begin when the Lord comes back to rule over Earth at the 2nd Coming.
As to the cup, the Last Supper was where Jesus said this. It was really a celebration of of the Jewish Passover. There are four special cups of wine that are consumed during the Passover observance representing the four promises God made to Moses in Exodus 6:6-7.
Therefore, say to the Israelites: “I am the LORD, and (1) I will bring you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians. (2) I will free you from being slaves to them, and (3) I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment. (4) I will take you as my own people, and I will be your God.”
Some believe that Jesus drank only three of the four cups and then stopped. If so, that would fittingly make the cup we celebrate in communion the one that represents His promise of redemption.
Later that day as He hung on the cross, knowing that He had fulfilled the requirements for phase one of the Kingdom to come, He asked for a drink. After taking some of the wine they gave him, He died. (John 19:28-30)
This was thought to be the 4th cup of the Passover. By drinking it He was saying to all who would believe in Him, “I will take you as my people and I will be your God.”