I have recently found your website and I’m impressed with a number of your articles. I would like to know who the “called” are in Romans 8:28? Are they the same as the Elect and how are they “called”? Who does the calling?
The called in Romans 8:28 are believers. In Romans 8:29-30, Paul said the Lord who knows the end from the beginning foreknew all who would choose to be saved during their lifetimes and predestined (appointed) them to do so. When the time is right He calls them to do what He already knows they’ll do. When they respond to His call He justifies them by using the blood of Jesus to wash away their sins. This makes them part of God’s elect and allows Him to regard them as though innocent. At the rapture/resurrection, He will glorify them, clothing them in a new eternal body, and welcoming them to dwell with Him in a state of eternal blessing. In the meantime, He’s working everything together for our good (Romans 8:28).